Beta Particle Standards

Beta Nuclide Standards—Type A

The active material is uniformly distributed over the surface of a 0.937” (23.8 mm) diameter foil and sealed in an aluminum mounting ring under a 0.9 mg/cm2 aluminized Mylar window for most nuclides. The active diameter of the source is 0.805” (20.4 mm). Special absorbers may be included under the window to filter undesirable low energy radiation. This configuration is most useful for determining efficiencies of G.M. and windowless counters used for beta assaying evaporated liquid samples. The overall source diameter is 1” (25.4 mm) and 0.125” (3.18 mm) thick.

Beta Calibration Standard

Catalog
Number

Nuclide

Half-Life

Substrate

Beta Energies
(E-max keV)

Window

BF-210-A Bismuth-210 22.3 y Stainless Steel 1160 6.9 mg/cm2 Aluminum
BF- 014-A Carbon-14 5730 y Polymeric Membrane 156 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-137-A Cesium-137 30.17 y Stainless Steel 1175 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-036-A Chlorine-36 3.01 x 105 y Stainless Steel 1142 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-060-A Cobalt-60 5.272 y Stainless Steel 1491 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-068-A Germanium-68 (1) 270.8 d Stainless Steel 2921 (β+) 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-147-A Promethium-147 2.6234 y Stainless Steel 225 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-106-A Ruthenium-106 /Rhodium-106 1.020 y Stainless Steel 39, 3540 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-032-A Silicon-32/ Phosphorus-32 (2) 104 y Stainless Steel 225, 1710 13.7 mg/cm2 Aluminum
BF-022-A Sodium-22 950.8 d Stainless Steel 2842 (β+) 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-090-A Strontium-90/Yttrium-90 (3) 28.5 y Stainless Steel 546, 2282 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-099-A Technetium-99 2.13 x 105 y Stainless Steel 294
0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-204-A Thallium-204 3.78 y Stainless Steel 763 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-113-A Tin-113 115.1 d Platinum Foil or Pt/Clad Ni 392 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar

1) Positron emission from Ga-68.
2) This long-lived P-32 standard is the beta emitting P-32 daughter of the long-lived Si-32 parent. The standard mounting for this source
is the A capsule with a 0.002” (0.051 mm) AI window. This window will absorb more than 60% of the Si-32 225 keV betas and less than 5%
of the P-32 betas. Standards are prepared with the P-32 in equilibrium with the parent Si-32.
3)Sr-90 sources are certified as to the contained activity of the Sr-90 only. Sr-90, a beta emitter, is in equilibrium with the Y-90 daughter. Thus, a 1 μCi (37 kBq) Sr-90 source also contains 1 μCi (37 kBq) of Y-90. When comparing sources in similar geometries (i.e., similar backing, cover and source detector distance) good results should be obtained. Sr-90 has an average beta energy of 196 keV and Y-90 has an average beta energy of 934 keV, thus care must be taken when comparing sources of substantially different geometries since effects such as backscatter and window absorption
must be considered.

Overall Diameter: 1 inch (25.4 mm)
Active Diameter: 0.805 inch (20.4 mm)
Height: 0.125 inch (3.18 mm)

Nature of Active Deposit: Evaporated Salts on 0.010” Stainless Steel
Available Activities: 5 nCi -100 nCi (185 Bq - 3.7 kBq)

Exceptions:
Bi-210 : 10 nCi - 100 nCi (370 Bq - 3.7 kBq)
Sr-90 : 2.5 nCi - 100 nCi (92.5 Bq - 3.7 kBq)

Beta Particle Standards—Type MF2

This is a “scatterless” configuration in which the activity is applied as a 0.12” (3 mm) spot centered between two laminated 0.9 mg/cm2 aluminized Mylar foils. The source is supplied in a removable aluminum holder. In the holder the source has an overall diameter of 1” (25.4 mm) and a thickness of 0.125” (3.18 mm). Out of the holder the source is 0.937” (23.8 mm) in diameter with a thickness of approximately 0.030” (0.76 mm). This configuration is most useful for the precise determination of G.M. and proportional counter efficiencies, and as an educational tool for the verification of the inverse square law, as well as demonstrating back-scatter phenomena. Additional beta sources are available, including disk standards suitable for use with low background counting systems and 3.94” x 3.94” (100 mm x 100 mm) distributed beta sources for instrument calibration and dose assessments.

Beta Calibration Standards by Eckert and Ziegler, Type MF2

Catalog
Number

Nuclide

Half-Life

Substrate

Beta Energies
(E-max keV)

Window

BF- 014-MF2 Carbon-14 5730 y Polymeric Membrane 156 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-137-MF2 Cesium-137 30.17 y Stainless Steel 1175 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-036-MF2 Chlorine-36 3.01 x 105 y Stainless Steel 1142 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-060-MF2 Cobalt-60 5.272 y Stainless Steel 1491 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-068-MF2 Germanium-68(1) 270.8 d Stainless Steel 2921 (β+) 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-147-MF2 Promethium-147 2.6234 y Stainless Steel 225 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-106-MF2 Ruthenium-106 /Rhodium-106 1.020 y Stainless Steel 39, 3540 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-022-MF2 Sodium-22 950.8 d Stainless Steel 2842 (β+) 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-090-MF2 Strontium-90 /Yttrium-90(2) 28.5 y Stainless Steel 546, 2282 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-099-MF2 Technetium-99 2.13 x 105 y Stainless Steel 294 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar
BF-204-MF2 Thallium-204 3.78 y Stainless Steel 763 0.9 mg/cm2 Aluminized Mylar

1) Positron emission from Ga-68.
2) Sr-90 sources are certified as to the contained activity of the Sr-90 only. Sr-90, a beta emitter, is in equilibrium with the Y-90 daughter. Thus, a 1 μCi (37 kBq) Sr-90 source also contains 1 μCi (37 kBq) of Y-90. When comparing sources in similar geometries (i.e., similar backing, cover and source detector distance) good results should be obtained. Sr-90 has an average beta energy of 196 keV and Y-90 has an average beta energy of 934 keV, thus care must be taken when comparing sources of substantially different geometries since effects such as backscatter and window absorption
must be considered.

Overall Diameter: 1 inch (25.4 mm)
Active Diameter: 0.12 inch (3 mm)
Height: 0.125 inch (3.18 mm)

Nature of Active Deposit: Evaporated Salts on Mylar
Available Activities: 5 nCi -100 nCi (185 Bq - 3.7 kBq)

Exceptions:
Bi-210 : 10 nCi - 100 nCi (370 Bq - 3.7 kBq)
Sr-90 : 2.5 nCi - 100 nCi (92.5 Bq - 3.7 kBq)


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